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Impedance Calculators

Below is a collection of Impedance Calculators used by Mantaro engineers and provided for your use freely. If you have any suggestions for improvement please email feedback@mantaro.com.
If you like these calculators please tell your friends.
Please also read our Disclaimer at the bottom of the page.

Discrete Structures:

PCB Structures:

Signal Management:


NOTE: Formulas with dimensions are shown in mm unless noted.




Wire Inductance Calculator:


Dimensional units: mm mils
len (length) =
d (diameter) =


L (Inductance, nH) =

Strap Inductance Calculator:


Dimensional units: mm mils
len (length) =
w (width) =
t (thickness) =


L (Inductance, nH) =

Air Core Solenoid Calculator:


Dimensional units: mm mils
d (diameter) =
len (length) =
N (number of turns) =


L (Inductance, nH) =

Air Core Inductor Calculator:


Dimensional units: mm mils
ID (inner diameter) =
AWG (magnet wire gauge) =
N (number of turns) =


L (Inductance - no leads, nH) =
D (wire diameter) =
d (inductor diameter) =
Len (Inductor Length) =
Wl (Wire Length - no leads) =
Rdc (DC Resistance, copper, no leads, mOhm) =

Air Core Flat Spiral Inductance Calculator:


Dimensional units: mm mils
d1 (outer diameter) =
d2 (inner diameter) =
N (number of turns) =


L (Inductance, nH) =

Toroid Inductance Calculator:


Dimensional units: cm inch
h (core width) =
D1 (outer diameter) =
D2 (inner diameter) =
ur (relative permeability) =
N (number of turns) =
L (Inductance, uH) =
Ae (effective core area) =
le (effective core length) =
Ve (effective core volume) =
B/I (Flux Density per Amp, gauss/A) =

Gapped Core Inductance Calculator:


Dimensional units: cm inch
le (core length) =
Ae (core area = gap area) =
lg (gap length) =
ur (relative permeability) =
N (number of turns) =


L (Inductance, uH) =
Al (Inductance per turn ^2, nH) =
B/I (Flux Density per Amp, gauss/A) =

SI and SGS Magnetic Units:



Mutual and Leakage_Inductance Calculator:


L1 (Inductance, uH) =
L2 (Inductance, uH) =
L1_leak (Inductance, uH)) =
L2_leak (Inductance, uH) =
Note: Calculations assume zero coil resistance

Parallel Wire Impedance Calculator:


Dimensional units: mm mils
s (wire separation) =
d (wire diameter) =
er (relative dielectric constant) =


Zo (Impedance, Ohms) =

Coaxial Line Impedance Calculator:


Dimensional units: mm mil
di (inner diameter) =
do (outer diameter) =
ur (relative magnetic permeability) =
er (relative dielectric constant) =

Zo (Impedance, Ohms) =

Skin Depth Calculator:


Dimensional units: mm mils
rho (resistivity, nOhms*m) =
ur (relative magnetic permeability) =
TC (temp coefficient, ppm/C) =
T (operating temperture, Deg C) =
Fo (frequency, MHz) =
AWG (Wire Gauge) =

Default Material = Copper

Microstrip Impedance Calculator:


Note: valid for (w/h) from 0.1 to 3.0
Dimensional units: mm mils
w (trace width) =
t (trace thickness) =
h (dielectric thickness) =
er (relative dielectric constant) =

Zo (Single Ended Impedance, Ohms) =
Note: 1oz = 1.4mils = 0.03556mm

Microstrip Impedance From Zo Calculator:


Note: valid for (w/h) from 0.1 to 3.0
Dimensional units: mm mils
Zo (target impedance, Ohms) =
t (trace thickness) =
h (dielectric thickness) =
er (relative dielectric constant) =

w (trace width) =
Note: 1oz = 1.4mils = 0.03556mm

90 Deg Mitered Corner:


Mitered bends are used to compensate for the impedance discontinuity of the bend.
w (trace width) =
h (dielectric thickness) =

x (miter) =

Differential Microstrip Impedance Calculator:


Note: valid for (w/h) from 0.1 to 3.0
Dimensional units: mm mils
w (trace width) =
d (trace separation) =
t (trace thickness) =
h (dielectric thickness) =
er (relative dielectric constant) =

Zd (Differential Impedance, Ohms) =
Zo (Single Ended Impedance, Ohms) =
Calculate w from Zd
Note: 1oz = 1.4mils = 0.03556mm

Differential Microstrip Impedance From Zo Calculator:


Dimensional units: mm mils
Zo (single ended impedance, Ohms) =
d (trace separation) =
h (dielectric thickness) =


Zd (Impedance, Ohms) =
Calculate Zo from Zd
Calculate d from Zo and Zd

Embedded Microstrip Impedance Calculator:


Note: valid for (h1/h) greater than 1.2
Dimensional units: mm mils
w (trace width) =
t (trace thickness) =
h (trace dielectric thickness) =
h1 (overall dielectric thickness) =
er (relative dielectric constant) =


Zo (Impedance, Ohms) =
Note: 1oz = 1.4mils = 0.03556mm

Stripline Impedance Calculator:


Note: valid for (w/h) from 0.1 to 2.0 and (t/h) less than 0.25
Dimensional units: mm mils
w (trace width) =
t (trace thickness) =
h (dielectric thickness) =
er (relative dielectric constant) =

Zo (Impedance, Ohms) =
Note: 1oz = 1.4mils = 0.03556mm

Differential Stripline Impedance Calculator:


Note: valid for (w/h) from 0.1 to 2.0 and (t/h) less than 0.25
Dimensional units: mm mils
w (trace width) =
d (trace separation) =
t (trace thickness) =
h (dielectric thickness) =
er (relative dielectric constant) =

Zd (Impedance, Ohms) =
Note: 1oz = 1.4mils = 0.03556mm

Differential Stripline From Zo Impedance Calculator:


Dimensional units: mm mils
Zo (single ended impedance, Ohms) =
d (trace separation) =
h (dielectric thickness) =


Zd (Impedance, Ohms) =

Asymmetric Stripline Impedance Calculator:


Note: valid for (w/h) from 0.1 to 2.0 and (t/h) less than 0.25
Dimensional units: mm mils
w (trace width) =
t (trace thickness) =
h (smaller dielectric thickness) =
h1 (larger dielectric thickness) =
er (relative dielectric constant) =


Zo (Impedance, Ohms) =
Note: 1oz = 1.4mils = 0.03556mm

Broadside Coupled Stripline Impedance Calculator:


Note: valid for (w/h) from 0.1 to 2.0 and (t/h) less than 0.25
Dimensional units: mm mils
w (trace width) =
t (trace thickness) =
h (outer dielectric thickness) =
h1 (center dielectric thickness) =
er (relative dielectric constant) =


Zo (Impedance, Ohms) =
Note: 1oz = 1.4mils = 0.03556mm

Plane Impedance Calculator:


Note: valid for w>>h
Dimensional units: mm mil
w (width) =
h (height) =
ur (relative magnetic permeability) =
er (relative dielectric constant) =

L (inductance, nH) =
C (capacitance, pF) =

Rectangular Pad Capacitance Calculator:

(includes core and fringing capacitance)

Note: valid for w>h and len>h
Dimensional units: mm mil
w (pad width) =
len (pad length) =
h (height) =
t (trace thickness) =
er (relative dielectric constant) =

C (capacitance, pF) =

Pad Capacitance and Thermal Resistance Calculator:


Note: valid for w>>h and len>>h (excludes fringing capacitance)
Note: Thermal conductivity of FR4 ranges from approximately 0.24 to 0.34 W/(m.K)
Dimensional units: mm mil
w (width) =
l (length) =
h (height) =
er (relative dielectric constant) =
ro (thermal conductivity, W/(m.K)) =
Incrementally Add:
Rectangle
Triangle
Ellipse
Reset Area to Zero
A (Cumulative Area, mm^2) =
C (capacitance, pF) =
k (Thermal Resistance, Deg C/W) =

Capacitively Loaded Transmission Line Calculator:


Dimensional units: mm inch
Zo (unloaded trace impedance, Ohms) =
Tpd (unloaded propagation delay, ps/unit len) =
Cl (distributed capacitve load, pf) =
len (transmission line Length) =



Zl (loaded Impedance, Ohms) =

1%, 5%, 10% Component Value Calculator:



Target Value =
Nearest 1% Value, %Error =
Nearest 5% Value, %Error =
Nearest 10% Value, %Error =
R1= R2=
Parallel Value, %Error =
R3= R4=
Series Value, %Error =

1% Resistor Divider Calculator:


Target Vin (V) = adjusts A,dB,R2
Target Vout (V) = adjusts A,dB,R2
Target R1 = adjusts R2
Target R2 = adjusts R1
Target A (lin gain) = adjusts Vout,dB,R2
Target dB (dB gain) = adjusts Vout,A,R2
1% R1, %Error =
1% R2, %Error =
1% Vout (V), %Error =
1% A(Lin Gain), %Error =
1% A(dB), dB_Error =
1% Rin, Rout =
Vout %Tol (From 1% Component Tolerance) =
Vout %Tol (From 0.1% Component Tolerance) =
Note: %Error indicates the nominal difference to the target value due to value selection.
%Tolerance indicates the additional +/- part to part variation due to manufacturing accuracy.

Pi and Tee Attenuator Pad Calculator:


Port 1 Characteristic Impedance, Z1 (Ohms) =
Port 2 Characteristic Impedance, Z2 (Ohms) =
A (Attenuation, dB) =



Pi Attenuator Pad:
      R1 ( Ohms) =
      R2 ( Ohms) =
      R3 ( Ohms) =
Tee Attenuator Pad:
      R1 ( Ohms) =
      R2 ( Ohms) =
      R3 ( Ohms) =

Y and Delta Network Transformation Calculator:


Y Impedance, R1 (Ohms) =
Y Impedance, R2 (Ohms) =
Y Impedance, R3 (Ohms) =
Transform Y to Delta:



Delta Impedance, Ra (Ohms) =
Delta Impedance, Rb (Ohms) =
Delta Impedance, Rc (Ohms) =
Transform Delta to Y:



Add Series/ Parallel Resistor:


1:N Resistive Splitter Calculator:


Port Characteristic Impedance, Zo (Ohms) =
N (Number of split ports, 1:N) =
A (Attenuation, dB) =



Series Resistance - R1 ( Ohms) =
Shunt Resistance - R2 ( Ohms) =

Smith Chart Tutorial:

The Smith Chart graphically maps S11 = reflection coefficient= (ZL-Z0)/(ZL+Z0) to Load Impedance (ZL), normalized to Z0 (source impedance = center of chart). The Smith Chart achieves this by superimposing a grid on S11 that maps load impedance. Polar or rectangular grids only allow direct reading of S11. Notice that the location of the marker is independent of grid type, and only the Smith Chart grid enables reading the load impedance (ZL) by inspection. SWR circles are also provided for the sake of illustration. An Admittance Chart(YL=1/ZL) is provided for illustration as well.
  • Click the Z_Load buttons to see impedance examples
  • A Match is at dead center (reference impedance Z0 )
  • A Short is at the far left
  • An Open is at the far right
  • Pure real impedances are along the horizontal axis
  • Pure imaginary impedances lie along the unit circle
  • Constant real impedances lie along circles
  • Constant imaginary impedances lie along semi-circles
  • To calculate absolute impedance multiply the Smith Chart result by Z0
Click buttons below to view S11 with on different grids:
  • All choices generate the same grid-less position (X,Y)=(S11re,S11im)
  • The Smith Chart grid reads ZL=(ZLre,ZLim)
  • The Polar grid reads S11=(S11mag, S11phase)
  • The Rectangular grid reads S11=(S11re,S11im)
  • The SWR grid reads SWR=(1+|S11|)/(|1-S11|)
  • The Admittance Chart grid reads YL=1/ZLin=(YLre,YLim)
  • Adding series inductance moves clockwise along constant resistance circles
  • Adding series capacitance moves counter-clockwise along constant resistance circles
  • Adding shunt inductance moves clockwise along constant admittance circles
  • Adding shunt capacitance moves counter-clockwise along constant admittance circles
  • Use the Series and Shunt Impedance Calculator to try your own impedances
Change Grid:


S11, (ZL normalized to source impedance Z0)
Z_Load














Z_Load















Matching Network Calculator:


Port Z1 Real, Imaginary Impedance (Ohms) = , j
Port Z2 Real, Imaginary Impedance (Ohms) = , j
Operating Frequency, Fo (MHz) =



Lower, Higher Impedance Port ZLOW= ZHIGH=
Option 1:
Series, Shunt Matching Impedance (Ohms) ja= jb=
     
     
Option 2:
Series, Shunt Matching Impedance (Ohms) ja= jb=
     
     

Series and Shunt Impedance Calculator:



S11, normalized to source impedance ZS (set below)

Change Grid:










Reset to:


Operating Frequency (MHz) =

, j



,
Series Impedance (ZL=a+jb) Ohm= , j
Parallel Impedance (ZL=c//jd) Ohm= , j
ZL (Ohm, deg) = ,   
YL (1/r,j/x sec) = ,   
S11 (Re+jIm)= , j
S11 (dB, deg)= ,   
SWR =
, j

Return Loss S11, and VSWR Calculator:


Port Z1 Real, Imaginary Impedance (Ohms) = , j
Port Z2 Real, Imaginary Impedance (Ohms) = , j

Reflection Coefficient (Lin Mag,Deg) = ,
Return Loss = S11 (dB, Deg)= ,
Mismatch/Through Loss (dB)=
VSWR =

[DISCLAIMER: The information contained on this webpage is for general information purposes only. The information is provided by Mantaro and while we endeavour to keep the information up to date and correct, we make no representations or warranties of any kind, express or implied, about the completeness, accuracy, reliability, suitability or availability with respect to the website or the information, products, services, or related graphics contained on the website for any purpose. Any reliance you place on such information is therefore strictly at your own risk. In no event will we be liable for any loss or damage including without limitation, indirect or consequential loss or damage, or any loss or damage whatsoever arising from loss of data or profits arising out of, or in connection with, the use of this website.]